Sun through ND filter
200mm | ISO 50 | f/13 | 1/8000sec | 10 stop ND filter

When we want to look at the Sun from Earth, we use a solar filter of some kind so that we do not
damage our eyes or camera. This is the Sun as seen through a Neutral Density filter.
Photographers Web page.

There are no photos taken from outside of Earths atmosphere using a similar filter, and NASA has not taken a similar filter into space
or even into low Earth orbit, the International Space Station for example. No solar filters were taken on any of the Apollo missions to the Moon,
even though for most of the journey the Sun should have been shining all the time. There are no mentions of the Sun in any of the transcripts
available, and none of the astronauts talked about the appearance of the Sun from space. There are images of the Sun from Earth orbit, and images
from the surface of the Moon, and some from orbit around the Moon, but none were taken using a solar filter, and the ones from Lunar orbit
were taken using a very high speed, military class surveillance film, again with no filter.

The Sun seen from space

The Sun seen from the ISS.

All photos of the Sun taken from space are taken looking towards the Earth, whereas from Earth we must be looking outwards,
away from Earth. Also it can be found from the image information that no solar filter was used. By looking at the Sun in this way, the line of
sight to the Sun must be passing through the Earths upper atmosphere, which is much thinner than it is lower down, but the line of sight
passes through thousands of miles of this thinner atmosphere, and that is a very important consideration, as it is my contention
that it is the Earths atmosphere that produces the light and the heat (heat is infra-red light) that we see or feel from the Earths surface.
(Photos from the ISS are often taken using 'fish-eye' type lenses, and by eye no curvature of the Earth is noticeable
 from that altitude. This also has the effect of making the Sun appear further from the Earth, but is actually just above the horizon)

I have termed this process the "Atmospheric Light Transformer" model, which was inspired by a little known scientist known as
Horace Winfield Webster, who in 1949 claimed that when astronauts went into space they would not be able to see the Sun, Moon or the stars.
To this day there have been no experiments performed to disprove his claims, and in fact his theory has been verified by many astronauts
over the years, by the Apollo astronauts who traveled to the Moon and back, and by astronauts in low Earth orbit when they have had an opportunity
to look away from Earth. This is confirmed in transcripts of the Apollo crews conversations and also in interviews with past and present
Space Shuttle and ISS crew members.

Although this image is labeled as  'Corona-Window Calibration', I suspect it must be of the Sun, taken with the 2495 very high speed film.
A15 corona calibration

It was taken at the beginning of the TEC (Trans-Earth coast) subsequent to the imaging of the corona from orbit 72.
A15 Corona

The best image of the Sun from the lunar surface is probably from A14, using the SO-168 colour film and a 60mm lens.
A14 Sun from lunar surface

In all cases, where the Sun is visible it is due to the interaction of the shorter wavelength solar radiation with the fine lunar dust to produce
visible wavelength light. This a phenomena known from laboratory experiments.

The LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorerspacecraft)  confirmed the presence of the sub-nanometer sized dust grains as
 well as a tenuous neon and helium exosphere. Though the artists depiction suggests the scattering of visible light by the dusty atmosphere, I
interpret it as visible light (full spectrum) produced by the bombardment of the lunar dust by UV and up solar radiation, a fluorescence.

LADEE in lunar orbit 
Artist’s concept of NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft in orbit above the moon.


Many people have informed me that there are instruments such as SOHO or SDO that 'take pictures' of the Sun from space, but neither
of these instruments see at visible wavelengths, and our eyes would see none of what they do. The shorter wavelength light from the Sun must be
being converted, by the atmosphere, to wavelengths that we can see, and by processes known and accepted by mainstream science.
There is no new science being proposed here.

I consider myself a very competent scientist, and as such require that what I am expected to believe be backed up
by independently verifiable, repeatable experiment and observations. This is known as the empirical science method.
My claims that the Sun is not visible from 'clear' space, well outside of Earths atmosphere, is an extraordinary one,
and as such am told that it would require extraordinary proof, to which I fully agree. But, as  I would be trying to prove
a negative, then it must be up to those who believe the Sun is visible from outside of Earths atmosphere to prove it.
I welcome then that those who are convinced the Sun must be visible in space show the proof. The experiments required
are in themselves very simple, and require only using the same camera and filter and identical exposure settings to the
photo at the top of this page. Of course only those with access to space could perform the experiments, and they seem
to have no interest in doing so, with good reason I believe.

EMail comments and/or proof of the Suns visibility from space to: garyinsooke@yahoo.com

The heat from the Sun is another instance where scientific proof is lacking. We can see the bright Sun from Earth, so it is assumed
that it must be just as bright from space. We can feel the heat of the Sun, brutally from many locations, so how could we not be able to
 feel its heat from space? Another assumption.
When measuring the heat of the Sun from Earth we would likely use a pyrheliometer.
Pyrheliometer


Typical pyrheliometer, for measurement of direct solar radiation

 A device of this type has never been used from space though, or even from low Earth orbit. The heat from the Sun is
not directly measured from space, but instead a rather complex method that uses spectral measurements, and then assuming that the Sun is a
 near-black body object and then using  Wien's displacement law to calculate the heat from the Sun. Similarly, the heat of the Sun has never
been measured directly from anywhere other than Earths surface, so the accepted solar constant is yet another assumption.
We are racking up many assumptions already, but real science makes no assumptions.

As has been pointed out to me, and quite correctly, is that the surface of a spacecraft outside of Earths atmosphere, or the surface of
a moon or planet with no or little atmosphere will get hot, and this fact has been scientifically tested. So the Sun must emit heat?
This again is an assumption, as what is occurring is that the shorter wavelength (not visible) radiation from the Sun is causing the
electrons of the atoms on the surface being irradiated to undergo orbital transitions, and when they return to their original
orbit they give off light which heats the surrounding matter. As was found by experiment on the lunar surface, the heat does not
penetrate very far, and just a few centimeters under the surface the regolith is just below 0C, and remains at that temperature
as far as they managed to drill, around 5 feet down. The same would be found with the surface of Mercury.

My quest to try and determine the visibility of the Sun from space began after watching a Youtube video around 10 years
ago by Eric Dollard, an electrical engineer, who claimed that the Sun and stars are not visible in free space. This is a clip
from a more recent video:
Eric Dollard, The Sun is Not What we We Have Been Told
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jIcVLQVw624

If the Sun is not what we are told it is, what other possibilities are there? In 1901, George Woodward Warder wrote "Cities
of the Sun", available from archive.org.
https://archive.org/details/citiesofsun00warduoft

I have my own alternative model of the Sun, as an Opto-Electro-Magnetic Machine.

I will be going into much more detail on the science involved and the instruments being used by present day investigators
in the Astronomy and Astrophysics section.